Particle size measurement method.

Nanoparticle size was characterized by dynamic light scattering using a Malvern Zen 3600 Zetasizer (Zetasizer Nano, Malvern, Worcestershire, UK). All measurements were performed within 6 months after sample preparation.

The stock suspension was diluted to 1 mg/L using ultrapure water generated by a Barnstead EPure system (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA), 0.01% SDS or 1000 mg/L tannic acid depending on the background solution used in sample preparation. Methacrylate disposable cuvettes were used to perform the measurement. For each sample, 5 measurements were performed and each measurement consisted of 10 runs. Refractive indexes of the nanoparticle suspensions used in the measurement are listed at each nanomaterial's information page. The size data reported is the number mean hydrodynamic diameter of the diluted sample.

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